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Globally, Diabetes Mellitus and its complications is the third largest killer. At the current rate, the diabetic population of 171 million will increase to 366 million by 2030. One of the most common complications associated with DM is nephropathy or kidney damage. Diabetes is strongly linked to oxidative stress as either a consequence of increased ROS production, reduced antioxidant status, or both. Oxidative stress in diabetes is brought on by consistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) from a very high carbohydrate diet, reduced cell carbohydrate uptake, and/or low insulin output from the pancreas. Astaxanthin could lessen oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells (the cells in body that produce insulin) caused by chronic high blood sugar levels. In turn, this improves the body’s ability to manage blood glucose levels by allowing the pancreatic cells to make the right amount of insulin when needed. Astaxanthin was found to improve pancreatic beta cell function and protect these cells from glucose toxicity, cell breakdown and death. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of astaxanthin from the algae Haematoccus pluvialis as Antidiabetic and kidney protector.