Articles

  1. Prescribing practices of antibiotics in outpatient setting of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan: An observational study Download Article

    Syed Imran Ali, Atta Abbas, Sidra Tanwir, Farrukh Rafiq Ahmed, Arif Sabah, Erum Ejaz, Ayesha Rafi, Aisha Yousuf, Mehreen Qadri, Summaiya Wasim and Erum Fatima Jaffery.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-4)
    • No of Download = 371

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    Antibiotic resistance is a form of drug resistance whereby certain sub-populations of a microorganism, usually a bacterial species, are able to survive after exposure to one or more antibiotics; pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics are considered multidrug resistant (MDR) and the issue is the subject of ongoing investigation these days. The present study observed the rationality of antibiotics prescribed in an outpatient setting in a tertiary care hospital.

    A prospective cohort study was conducted for 2 months on the patients who were prescribed antibiotics in a tertiary care hospital in outpatient setting. The prescriptions of patients were evaluated with respect to the medical condition of the patient. A total of 500 prescriptions were evaluated for rationality out of which 240 prescriptions (48%) were rational and 260 prescriptions (52%) were found to be irrational. The misuse of antibiotics continues to haunt the health care system of Pakistan and pose a threat of pandemic of bacterial resistance due to irrational use. Interventions by clinical pharmacists in the given situation are the need of the hour.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and invitro Anti- inflammatory activity of 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole derivatives Download Article

    Selvakumar K, Joysa Ruby J, Rajamanickam V, Jesindha Beyatricks K, N.Sriram.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (5-11)
    • No of Download = 368

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    Oxadiazole derivatives have played a vital part in the development of heterocyclic compounds. In this present work, a series of 5-(2-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione derivatives (1-10) have been synthesized by Mannich reaction. The reaction progress of the synthesized compounds was checked by TLC. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR and 1H NMR spectral data. The in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole compounds (1-10) was assessed by HRBC Membrane Stabilization Method. Among the newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives, compounds OFP, OAP, OBNP, OPBNP, ORP, OUP, OPClBP, OFD, OAD and OBND possessed highly significant anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 1000µg/ml when compared with standard, Diclofenac potassium.

  3. The association of Hypothyroidism medications and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus SLE: A case study of drug induced Lupus Download Article

    Maria Mughal, Atta Abbas, Arif Sabah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (12-15)
    • No of Download = 358

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    Introduction

    Hypothyroidism is a condition which requires iodine levels to be augmented and adjusted for the proper function of thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism refers to any state in which thyroid hormone production is below normal. The thyroid gland is regulated by, the pituitary gland. There is a risk that the medicines given to treat hypothyroidism can cause systemic lupus erythmatosus SLE. It is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain. SLE is much more common in women than men.

    Case presentation

    A 45 year old female patient visited the hospital with complaints of itching on the right leg. There were symptoms risking the presence of SLE which later, the patient was then diagnosed with the disease. Upon investigation it was suspected a case of drug induced lupus as the patient had hypothyroidism two years ago and was on levothyroxine therapy. 

    Conclusion

    This report presents a case with an association between hypothyroidism medications and SLE. Risk of morbidity can be controlled by maintaining proper iodine level as well as to reduce the symptoms of SLE. The presence of either condition was associated with a higher frequency of both anti-microsomal and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies.

  4. Development and Validation of a Spectrophotometric method using Vierordt’s Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Moxifloxacin and Cefixime in tablet formulation Download Article

    P.Kathiravan,S.venkatesan, Rameshwar singh, P.Giriraj
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (16-24)
    • No of Download = 196

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    Objective: The objective of the current study was to develop rapid, accurate, reproducible, validated and economical Vierordt’s Method for the simultaneous determination of CEF and MOX in tablet dosage forms. Method: This method of analysis was based upon the absorption of drugs at wavelength maximum of each other. Two wavelengths of 289.10 and 295.10 nm were selected which are the λmax of two drugs for the development of the simultaneous equations. The absorbance of CEF and MOX were measured and the absorptivity values were determined at all the two selected wavelengths. Result & Discussion: The linearity was found to be 3-9µg/ml for CEF & MOX respectively. Recovery was in the range of 98 –102%; the values of standard deviation and% R.S.D. were found to be <2% shows the high accuracy of the method. The Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation were theoretically calculated which were found to be 0.0224 and 0.0678 for CEF and 0.0070 and 0.0214 for MOX respectively. Robustness and Ruggedness were also carried out and percentage RSD was found to be less than 2.0 %. The assay of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin was found to be 99.36% and 98.75%.The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the estimation of CEF and MOX in their combined Tablet dosage form. 

  5. Study of invitro anti-Oxidant Activity of Ipomea Pes-Caprae Download Article

    Pedakala Janardhan, R.Dhanalakshmi, J.Joysa Ruby
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (25-31)
    • No of Download = 387

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    The traditional medicinal plant ipomea pes- caprae belongs to convolvuceae family. The present study has been undertaken to find out the antioxidant activity of the whole plant extract of Ipomea pes-caprae. Plant was subjected to extraction by cold maceration by using ethanol as a solvent. Antioxidant activity such as 1,1-Diphenyl,2-Picryl,Hydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Activity, Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity,  Reducing Power, Metal chelating activity were determined.  Physicochemical analysis was carried out to identify the chemical constituent of the plant and showed the presence of alkaloid, sugar, steroid, glycoside, saponins, Terpenoids and phenol compounds. The result of free radical scavenging activity of EEIP by DPPH reduction revealed that the test compound is electron donor and could react with free radicals to convert them to more stable product and terminate radical chain reaction. For the measurement of reducing ability we investigated the Fe3+ to Fe2+ transformation. The metal chelating capacity of the EEIP and standard anti oxidants are determined by accessing the ability to complete with bipyridil and thiocyanate for Fe3+ and Fe2+ respectively. The formation of ferrous bipyridil, ferric – thiocyanate is not complete in the presence of EEIP. The ability of chelating is increased with increased concentration. So, it can be assumed that the plant extract chelate the iron. The experiment demonstrates that action of plant extract as per oxidation protector may be related to its iron binding ability. 

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